I've read many helpful threads on submitting a site internationally. However, I'm still not sure of the right approach for my client for whom I do all of his US SEO work. I'd like to tackle his international SEO project and learn those ropes.

Can anyone recommend a very basic overview of the options?
This company is one who makes an large industrial product which they install all over the world. We have done very well with our high ranking US/English/.com site. We'd like to have some visibility internationally. Would I have to translate the site into each language of each targeted area? Is there a less onerous/easier entry way to go about it? I don't think we want to buy domain names in each country at this point.
I would very much appreciate some guidance on the most basic approach to it and perhaps the next level up sort of approach. Thank you in advance!